The final chemical form of the sequestered CO2 via OAE is 4OH- + 4CO2 2 → 4HCO3- Ocean Alkalinization Enhancement with olivine is achieved by adding large amounts of pulverized silica rock onto the upper layers of the ocean and thereby increasing alkalinity, this reaction precipitates carbonates ions sequestration CO2 in the ocean floors. The carbon saturation state of seawater also promotes and maintains organisms that produce shells, exoskeletons, and plates of carbon such as some planktonic organisms, corals, and shellfish. This is considering a 100+ sequestration solution without needs for any intervention and minimum management require.


A possible issue associated with the enhanced weathering and ocean alkalinization with olivine is that of dust emissions. In the conservative case the olivine is grinded to a size of approximately < 1 mm. This finely grinded olivine an also be considered as particulate matter though is not included as such in our solution assessment. If the olivine would be considered as such and included in the assessment, then the score for human toxicity for the scenario that include fine grinding would be significant. Fine particle matter may namely have severe impact on human health as it is believed to be an important factor in human respiratory diseases. The actual impact of finely grinded olivine on human health is however currently unknown, furthermore, prevention for these factors is address by enclosing the equipment on land while grinding, and on the ocean, by weathering from the moment of deployment


The largest share of the scores for the environmental impact can be attributed to the energy requirement for crushing and for the transportation of the olivine. Lowering the environment impact of the energy requirement can then be done by fulfilling the energy demand with renewable energy technology that results, in general, in lower environmental impact. Another lesson that can be draw is that transportation should be limited as much as possible and should be performed with relative clean transport technologies, with a focus on renewable transport vehicles run by electric motors. To ensure that transport requirements is minimized, the spreading of olivine should take place as close to olivine deposits as possible. The deposits in warmer climates deserve attention as higher temperatures means enhancement of the kinetics of the reaction. Where possible region-specific life cycle inventory data should be used when performing a LCA for the EW and OAE in that region

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