Enhancing rates of weathering could remove atmospheric carbon and store it for a significant time in the oceanic systems, effectively accelerating the natural rate of transfer of carbon out of the atmosphere. With an average of 1=1.25 (1 ton of olivine diluted = 1.25 tons of CO2 sequestrated) the potential is well defined.
Renders & Elevations
The design allows users to trailer Lilly1 to refilling stations without dismantling the system and then deploying back into the water. Site-walks allows for drivers to access the system for maintenance outside and inside the water making it very convenient especially when any kind of malfunction presents itself in the middle of a deployment.
Full Deployment Elevations
Our design targets the upper layers to increase the alkalinity of the ocean rapidly therefore allowing it to absorb more CO2 from the atmosphere, so we capture CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in the ocean.
Of the over 91,000 dams in the United States, only three percent are dams with energy generation (hydroelectric facilities) . The state of Texas alone is home to the greatest number of dams in the U.S. As of 2019, there were over 7,000 dams in the Southern state. Deployment of Lilly1 in Dams will ensure a constant energy source for the machine to work with, as well as fast dissolution rate for the olivine. Constant river currents ensure an even distribution of the sludge, stopping Alkalinity saturation of the water. This is part of the expansion strategy that could put Lilly1 closer to the Olivine mines, cutting drastically in the transportation-to-site emissions and minimizing by 80% the energy source needed to operate the system.
The slow natural rates of mineral weathering are a significant obstacle to overcome to transfer atmospheric CO2 into terrestrial systems. The kinetics of silicate weathering per mass unit of chosen rocks can be increase by expanding the mineral's surface area. Our technology grinds the rock to maximize it potential for sequestration with minimum energy in the process.
Spreading finely ground silicate powder, rich in easily released cations, over the terrestrial surface could enhance natural rates of chemical weathering because the large surface area of the powdered material would result in rapid dissolution of the mineral.
The most suitable silicate mineral for Enhanced Weathering, given its reactivity and wide natural abundance, is forsterite (Mg-olivine). It is characterized by a high abiotic dissolution rate per surface area when compared to other silicate minerals.
Historical speaking, weathering and climate It have been claimed by Raymo & Ruddiman (1992) that the rapid exposure of large volumes of fresh rock in Eocene times in the Himalayas and the Tibet plateau has caused an enhanced weathering coupled to decreasing CO2 levels of the atmosphere. According to these authors, this has led to a gradual global cooling, and ultimately to the onset of the current Quaternary Glaciation, approximately 2.5 million years ago. A very similar conclusion was reached by Saltzman and Young (2005) who explain the late Ordovician glaciation by the uplift of the Appalachians, which increased the area of fresh exposed rocks, and the resulting decrease in atmospheric CO2 levels. In a later paper (Young et al. 2009) the authors discuss the role of increased volcanism. Briefly summarized, while during the most active period of volcanism CO2 emission levels and increased weathering of volcanic rocks more or less balanced, after the end of the period of active volcanism the huge volumes of fresh volcanic rock captured huge volumes of CO2, lowering its atmospheric level and causing a new glaciation period. In a small way we can do the same by exposing large volumes of fresh rock to the elements, but the advantage is that we are in the position to select the most suitable rock types, and the most favorable climates for weathering. Olivine-rich rock types are the most suitable.
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Lilly1-The Enhance Weathering and Ocean Alkalinization System
Nelson D. Pulgarin
Architect, Designer, and Project Manager
Abelardo J. Pulgarin
Industrial Engineer and Technology Consultant
Silvia L. Pulgarin
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